Reproductive health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system, at all stages of life. Good reproductive health implies that people are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life, the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when, and how often to do so(1).
Causes for unhealthy reproductive health in men:
Tribulus Terrestris is a traditional herbal medicine used to enhance sexual activities and increases hormone levels and fertility and reduces sexual activity disorders(4).
It controls erectile dysfunction by significantly increasing testosterone and DHT hormones, due to the presence of steroidal glycosides(4). It containing Saponins which increases secretion of Luteotropic hormone from pituitary gland by treating male infertility, while affecting the testis spermatocyte(4).
Ginseng is a reputed an aphrodisiac and is used to treat sexual dysfunction as well as to enhance sexual behaviour, it improves the sperm quality and sperm count of healthy individuals and infertility patients(5).
Damiana has claimed to have a stimulating effect on libido, it is an aphrodisiac stimulating for sexually exhausted males and increases sexual activity(6) also helps as diuretic, nerve tonic, laxative. Damiana used in the treatment of sexual impotency as anxiety neurosis associated with impotency(7).
Ginkgo Biloba has also been used to treat erectile dysfunction and as an aphrodisiac, it improves sperm quality, serum testosterone concentration(8).
Saw Palmetto Berry Extracts are widely used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, enlarged prostate gland(9) as well as for chronic pelvic pain, bladder disorders, decreased sex drive, hair loss, hormone imbalances and prostate cancer(10).
Muira Puama helps increased libido in men, supports healthy erection, male fertility, Increase in strength and stamina, stress response, aid in depression due to sexual dysfunction (11).
Gotu Kola helps in neuroprotective action and has properties like anti-anxiety, anti-depressant and anti-oxidant, it also has cytotoxic and tumoricidal avtivity and extract of gotu kola acts as anti-fertility agent(12).
Arginine hydrochloride helps in erectile dysfunction (ED). Taking 5 grams of L-arginine by mouth daily seems to improve sexual function in men with ED. Taking lower doses might not be effective(13).
Selenium contributes to normal spermatogenesis, normal function of the immune system, normal thyroid function and protects the cells from oxidative stress(14).
Calcium contributes in functions like blood clotting, muscle function, neurotransmission, energy-yielding metabolism and digestive enzymes. It plays crucial role in regulation of cell division and differentiation, maintenance of bones and teeth(15).
3.Male Reproductive Health, https://www.arhp.org/topics/male-reproductive-health.
4.Pharmacological Activities Of Tribulus Terrestris Linn: A Systemic Review, World Journal Of Pharmacy And Pharmaceutical Sciences Sjif, Impact Factor 2.786, Volume 4, Issue 02, 136-150. Review Article Issn 2278 – 4357.
5.Ginseng and male reproductive function, Spermatogenesis. 2013 Jul 1; 3(3): e26391.Published online 2013 Sep 13. doi: 10.4161/spmg.26391.
7.Anti-anxiety Activity Studies on Homoeopathic Formulations of Turnera aphrodisiaca Ward, Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2005 Mar; 2(1): 117–119.
8.Effect Of Ginkgo Biloba Extract On Sperm Quality, Serum Testosterone Concentration And Histometric Analysis Of Testes From Adult Wistar Rats, Journal Of Medicinal Plants Research, Vol.9(5), Pp.122-131 February2015 DOI:10.5897/JMPR2015.5730 ISSN: 1996-0875 .
9.Saw Palmetto for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, N Engl J Med 2006; 354:557-566February 9, 2006DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa053085.
12.Centella asiatica the elixir of life , international journal of research in ayurveda and pharmacy, ijrap.net/vol2/issue2/20.
13.L – Arginine, www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-875-larginine.aspx ? active ingredient id =875&activeingredientname=l-arginine.
14.Selenium,ec.europa.eu/nuhclaims/?event=search&CFID=2041059&CFTOKEN=60ee7cbe 9b409523A003B26BF1F1612366ED94F083B4E616&jsessionid=9212a8946ef53b68abdb41496c1c79 1e7114TR.
15.calcium,ec.europa.eu/nuhclaims/?event=search&CFID=2041059&CFTOKEN=60ee7cbe9b409523-A003B26B-F1F1-6123 66ED94F083B4E616 &jsessionid=9212a8946ef53b68abd b414 96c1 c791e7114TR.